trains in 20th Century Europe
The Orient Express routes
The Simplon Orient Express routes
Starting in Paris with connections from the Channel ports, this route took in Strasbourg, München, Salzburg, Wien, Budapest and Bucureşti with a southward link from Budapest to Beograd then Sofia and Istanbul.
Between the wars, an alternative route avoiding Germany was used by routing trains through the Arlberg from Zürich and Innsbruck to Wien and then onwards. This was the route of the Arlberg Orient Express. This route served tourists patronising the Arlberg region of western Austria together with Switzerland with south eastern Europe.
This was the Allies' answer to the Orient Express. This took a route through Lausanne and the Simplon Tunnel to Milano, turning eastward to Venezia, Ljubljana and Zagreb, joining the Orient Express route at Beograd. The Simplon Orient Express only came into being following the Peace Treaties of 1918-
It had a branch from Vinkovci to Bucureşti via Timişoara up to the Second World War. Additionally beginning in 1920, a link was forged from Beograd through Thessaloniki to Athenai .
By the end of the 19th Century the need was evident for a better route from southern Germany and the Austro Hungarian Empire to export goods from the Adriatic Coast at Trieste. The projected route traversed mountainous terrain with noticeable gaps.
The missing links were opened in 1909. This also afforded a new route for passengers from the north of Europe to Trieste and northern Dalmatia This also opened access from Jesenice to Ljubljana and thence Beograd which would add further long distance traffic to south east Europe.
The Tauern route
Channel port feeder service
Of interest here are the links from Hoek van Holland, Ostend and Calais. The Calais links were cars which went forward to Paris and used the Grand Ceinture to transfer from Paris Nord to Paris Gare de Lyon for onward despatch Often these cars were stationed next to the arriving steamer.
In the case of Hoek, through cars were often amalgamated with other expresses on route. Ostend had a number of trains which connected through to a destination in South Central Europe
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