trains in 20th Century Europe
The concept of long distance, luxury travel was largely the vision of George Nackelmackers, a Belgian engineer who had travelled in the USA in sleeping cars for which he saw a market in Europe. For day travel, Pullman cars were established in Europe
Accordingly he set about negotiating agreements at governmental level to run long distance sleeping car trains on a number of routes. The Orient Express was one of the first of such trains.
In 1876, his company was born – Compagnie Internationale des Wagons Lits(CIWL) which oversaw the introduction and running of luxury rolling stock. This was a revolutionary advance in standards of passenger traffic on long distances but its trains remained first class only, often plus supplement, for a considerable while.
The CIWL held a monopoly on such services, challenged only by the advent of the Germany company Mitropa during the 1914-
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