trains in 20th Century Europe
By 1999 two developments had taken place on the eastern end of this route. The Russian part came under Ukrainian ownership in 1992 and traffic patterns changed to serve the new political imperatives of the region. These are shown in the above diagram. Noticeably new connections were created to link Kraków and Lviv with Kyiv and Odesa. Traffic commenced between Kraków and Kyiv and also St Peterburg and Minsk to Bucureşti trains joining the spine route at Lviv. Moskva trains for Bucureşti travelled via Kyiv to Vadul Siret and Chernivtsi to Bucureşti and Sofia. Warszawa enjoyed a through express to Odesa via Lviv. By 2007 there were now no through connections between Romania and Poland by this route and the international trains using this spine favoured Russian/Ukrainian destinations. Wien and Praha were connected to Kraków via Bohumin and to Lviv, Odesa and Kyiv via Čop.
The route still existed but provided a different function to that of 1914 and 1935. Gone were trains from Berlin to Wien and Budapest as was the Istanbul and Trieste service. Passengers from Berlin to Bucureşti now travelled through Praha and Budapest using the Balt Orient line.
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